Prof. Nirmalendu Saha

Zoology Department

Designation: Professor

Qualifications:

Degree Year University
B. Sc. 1980 North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong
M. Sc. 1982 North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong
Ph. D.  1987 North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong

Specialization:        Biochemical Adaptation and Metabolic Regulation

Academic/Teaching Experience

S. No. Post Organization/
University
Duration Experience
From To
1. Professor NEHU, Shillong 13.05.2003 Till date 14 years & 4 months
2. Reader NEHU, Shillong 18.12.1996 12.05.2003 6 years & 5 months
3. Senior Lecturer NEHU, Shillong 07.04.1993 16.12.1996 3 years & 8 months
4. Lecturer NEHU, Shillong 06.05.1988 06.04.1993 5 years

Fellowships/Awards/Recognitions:

National:

  • Fellow of National Academy of Sciences, India (F.N.A.Sc.)
  • Fellow of Zoological Society, Kolkata (F.Z.S.)
  • ISCA Young Scientists Award by the Indian Science Congress Association in the year 1990.
  • Young Scientist Best Speaker Prize and a gold medal by the Ichthyological Society of India for the year 1987.
  • National Merit Scholarship from Matriculation up to M.Sc.

International:

  • DAAD Fellow (1st June 1 1991 30th September 1993)
  • Senior DAAD Fellow (1st October to 31st December, 1997)
  • Visiting Scientist (BAT II) on invitation in the laboratory of Professor Dr. D. Häussinger, Germany (1st May, 2001 to 30th April 2002)
  • Senior DAAD Fellow (1st December, 2005 31st January, 2006)

Memberships of Academic Societies etc.:

  • Life Member of the National Academy of Sciences, Allahabad, India
  • Life Member of the Indian Science Congress Association, Kolkata
  • Life Member of the Indian Society of Biological Chemists
  • Life Member of the Indian Society of Comparative Animal Physiologists

Major Areas of Research/Research Activities:

  • Nitrogen metabolism in air-breathing teleosts with special reference to ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) and amino acid metabolism under environmental stresses.
  • Molecular mechanisms of regulation of ureogenesis and amino acid metabolism under environmental constraints in air-breathing catfishes.
  • Nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative stress and protein turnover with relation to cell volume changes in air-breathing catfishes.
  • Cell volume changes and early immediate gene expression in the hepatocytes of air-breathing catfishes.
  • Molecular characterization and regulation of expression of different nitric oxide synthase genes and the role of nitric oxide under environmental stresses in air-breathing teleosts.
  • Oxidative stress and antioxidant properties of air-breathing catfishes under environmental stresses.
  • Influence of nanoparticles on oxidative stress and antioxidant properties in air-breathing catfishes.

Number of M. Phil./Ph. D. produced:

            Ph.D.:                                                             18 (eighteen)

     Name                                             Year                         

  • Dr. Jacqueline Dkhar                               1995  
  • Dr. Lipika Das                                        2001  
  • Dr. Supiya Dutta                                     2002  
  • Dr. Carina Goswami                               2003  
  • Dr. Bidyadhar Das                                  2004  
  • Dr. Zaiba Y. Kharbuli                             2005  
  • Dr. Arundhati Bhattacharjee                   2006  
  • Dr. Shritapa Datta                                   2006  
  • Dr. Kuheli Biswas                                   2007  
  • Dr. Jamesteword Khongsngi                  2010  
  • Dr. Lucy M. Jyrwa                                 2011  
  • Dr. Mahua G. Choudhury                      2012  
  • Dr. Gitalee Bhuyan                                 2013  
  • Dr. Manash Das                                      2014  
  • Dr. Hnunlalliani                                      2017
  • Dr. Bodhisattwa Banerjee                      2017  
  • Dr. Priyanka Lal                                     2018  
  • Dr. Suman Kumari                                  2019  

 

M.Phil.:                                                              1 (one)

Name                                                                 Year

  • Ms. Carina Goswami                                         1997   

                                                                                   
13. Major findings in research:

Prof. Saha has shown for the first time the unique presence of a functional ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) in two freshwater air-breathing catfish that are predominantly available in Indian subcontinent, such as Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus (Saha and Ratha, 1987,1989; Saha et al., 1999), which otherwise is known to be non-functional or absent in typical fresh water teleosts. This unique finding by Prof. Saha has contradicted the earlier “gene deletion” hypothesis proposed by Brown and Cohen (1960) based on their findings of non-occurrence of functional OUC in fresh water teleosts, may be because of deletion of some genes required for OUC during their adaptive evolution in fresh water. In contrast, Prof. Saha and his group showed the existence of a functional OUC in air-breathing catfish, regulation of which depends on variable environmental constraints that they face regularly in natural habitats. For example, while living inside the mud-peat for months during the drought season under water restricted condition (Ratha et al. 1995; Saha et al., 2001), high concentration of ambient ammonia in stagnant water bodies due to evaporative water loss in summer (Saha and Ratha, 1990,1994; Saha and Das, 1999; Saha et al., 1995, 2003, 2007), and in alkaline condition (Saha et al.,2002), which compel them to switch over from ammoniotelic to ureotelic mode of nitrogen excretion by inducing the OUC enzyme activities. Although such unique adaptation was witnessed in amphibians, but not reported in any teleost species. In addition to this, Prof. Saha revealed existence of a functional OUC in non-hepatic tissues other than its usual presence in hepatic tissues, such as in kidney and muscle of these catfish as a special adaptation (Saha and Ratha, 1987, 1989; Saha et al., 1999), which is not found in higher vertebrates. Prof. Saha has also shown that these catfish have the capacity to accumulate very high concentration of ammonia while this is not so in mammals, where excess level of plasma ammonia may lead to coma and death.  Further, these catfish have the ability to convert the accumulated ammonia to glutamine and various non-essential amino acids very efficiently (Saha et al., 2000, 2002, 2007), as another unique adaptational strategy existing in these catfish. Another recent important contribution by Prof. Saha and his group is in relation to the occurrence of three glutamine synthetase (GS) genes expressed differentially in different tissues in catfish in contrast mammalian system, where the GS enzyme is encoded by only one gene, and all the three GS genes get induced specifically in different tissues under ammonia stress in high ambient ammonia (Banerjee et al. 2018).  His group has reported mitochondrial localization of both the isoforms of arginase (ARG 1 and 2), the last enzyme of the OUC, in C. batrachus liver, thereby suggesting that urea is exclusively synthetized inside the mitochondria of hepatic cells of catfish (Banerjee et al., 2017). This is again a unique observation in contrast to mammals, where urea is synthesised primarily in the cytosol of hepatic cells due to cytosolic localization of ARG, suggesting a regulatory role of mitochondrial urea synthesis in catfish.

Prof. Saha made a significant revelation regarding the presence of two types of carbamyol phosphate synthetase (CPS), the CPS I (ammonia- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-dependent), which is normally present in higher vertebrates such as in mammals and amphibians, in addition to the presence of a typical fish-type CPS III (glutamine- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate dependent) activity in air-breathing catfish (Saha et al., 1997, 1999, 2007). This is again another novel contribution of showing the presence of both the OUC-related CPSes (CPS I and III) in a single vertebrate species, which was not observed together in any other vertebrate. It was suggested that glutamine- and N-acetyl glutamate-dependent CPS III, found in lower vertebrates, is the evolutionary precursor to ammonia- and N-acetyl-L glutamate-dependent CPS I of ureotelic mammalian and amphibian species (Mommsen and Walsh, 1989). Thus, the presence of both types of OUC-related CPS activities in these two catfish probably has evolutionary significance with relation to the evolution of OUC in vertebrates, in addition to their physiological significance of efficient conversion of toxic ammonia to urea via the OUC by involving both the isoforms of CPS under ammonia stress.

Prof. N. Saha and his group have also demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by inducing the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene under ammonia stress during exposure to high ambient ammonia and during mud-dwelling in air-breathing catfish (H. fossilis and C. batrachus) (Choudhury and Saha, 2012a,b; Kumati et al. 2019). He further suggested that the enhanced production of NO under ammonia stress, which is known to play diverse physiological functions in mammals under environmental stresses, is also playing a significant role in catfish in defending against the various ammonia-induced stressors as another adaptational strategy. His group has also recently demonstrated that enhanced production of endogenous NO can have antioxidant activity against the nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress in hepatocytes of air-breathing catfish (Koner et al. 2019).

Administrative Experience/Posts & responsibilities held:

  • Head, Department of Zoology, NEHU (19.11.2012-23.11.2015)
  • Chairman, Board of Studies of Zoology, NEHU (19.11.2012-23.11.2015)
  • Member, Board of Studies of Zoology, NEHU (18.12.1996 to till date)
  • Member, Board of Studies of Zoology, Sikkim University (18.12.2014-19.9.2017)
  • Member, Board of Studies of Zoology, Tripura University (21.04.2016-20.04.2019)
  • Member, Board of Studies of Energy Engineering, NEHU (13.02.2013- 13.02.2016)
  • Member, Board of Studies of Biochemistry, NEHU (04.09.2017-03.09.2020)
  • Member of Academic Council, NEHU (13.05.2003 till date)
  • Chairman, Board of Management of Health Centre, NEHU (06.09.2012-05.09.2014)
  • Chairman, Crisis Management Committee, NEHU Campus (29.11.2012-28.11.2015)
  • Member, Digitization Sub-committee, NEHU (03.09.2012-02.09.2015)
  • Visitors’ Nominee for the School of Life Sciences, Mizoram University (22.08.2014-21.08.2016)
  • PAC Member, DST-SERB Animal Sciences, (06.06.2012 – 5.12.2018)
  • DST-SERB PAC Member for EMEQ (25.02.2013- 31.12.2019)
  • DST-SERB Expert Committee member for ECRA (08.09.2015-07.08.2018)
  • ICAR-NBFGR, Lucknow -Member of Research Advisory Committee (01.01.2017-31.12.2019)
  • Working Committee member for Introduction of Semester System at UG level, NEHU (17.04.2014-17.08.2017)
  • Governing Body Member of Sohra Government College (18.08.2014- 25.08.2018)
  • Member of BUGS in Fishery Sciences, NEHU (26.08.2013- 26.08.2016)
  • Advisory Committee Member under the DBT Star College Scheme, St. Mary’s College, Shillong (12.09.2012-11.09.2015)
  • Governing Body Member of Bajoria College, Shillong (18.08.2017-17.08.2020)
  • Member, Animal Resource and Fisheries, Meghalaya Biodiversity Board (01.12.2014-30.11.2016)

Research Projects

  1. Role of amino acid metabolism in Indian air-breathing teleosts to survive under hyper-ammonia stress. GTZ, Germany (1996-2000).
  2. Purification and characterization of carbamyl phosphate synthetase(s), and expression of urea cycle enzymes during early developmental stages in an amphibious potential ureogenic teleost, Clarias batrachus. UGC, New Delhi (2001-2004)
  3. Culture of carps and air-breathing fishes in hilly region and   transfer of technology to rural population of Meghalaya. DBT, New Delhi (2002-2005)
  4. Physiological significance of occurrence/expression and tissue distribution of nitric oxide synthases, production of nitric oxide under environmental constraints and pathological conditions in the air-breathing catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. DST, New Delhi (2006-2009)
  5. Molecular and functional characterization of nitric oxide synthases and production of   nitric oxide under environmental constraints and pathological conditions in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus. UGC, New Delhi (2007-2010)
  6. Influence of hyper-ammonia stress on the expression of multiple glutamine synthetase genes, mRNAs for ornithine urea cycle enzymes and mitogen activated protein kinases in air-breathing catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. DST, New Delhi (2010-2013)
  7. Molecular characterization in the expression of mRNAs for ornithine-urea cycle enzymes and enzyme proteins, multiple glutamine synthetase genes and signaling cascades under hyper-ammonia stress in the air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus. DBT Twining, New Delhi (2011-2015).
  8. Effects of high environmental ammonia on the expression of multiple glutamine synthetase genes, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Hsp70 in the air-breathing mud eel, Monopterus cuchia. UGC, New Delhi.
  9. Possible upregulation of ornithine-urea cycle genes and involvement of MAPKs to adapt under hyper-ammonia stress in air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus. DST-SERB, New Delhi (2014-2017)
  10. Molecular adaptation during exposure to zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with special reference to oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, expression of heat shock proteins in air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus. DST-SERB, New Delhi (2018-2021)
  11. To elucidate the unique biochemical adaptational strategies that allow two air-breathing catfishes (Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis) to survive in ammonia enriched toxic waste. NASF-ICAR (2018-2021)

Publications

List of publications: Total: 75 (Total IF: 190; Total citations: 2040; H index: 25)

National 16; International: 69

  1. Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1986). Effect of ammonia stress on ureogenesis in a freshwater air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis. Contemporary Themes in Biochemistry, 6: 342-343.
  2. Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1987). Active ureogenesis in a freshwater air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 241: 137-14.
  3. Saha N., Chakravorty J.  and Ratha B. K. (1988). Diurnal variation in renal and extra-renal excretion of ammonia-N and urea-N in a freshwater air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Proceedings Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Sci.), 97: 529-537.
  4. Chakravorty J., Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1989). A unique pattern of tissue distribution and sub-cellular localization of glutamine synthetase in a freshwater air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Biochemistry International, 19: 519-527.
  5. Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1989). Comparative study of ureogenesis in freshwater air-breathing teleosts. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 252: 1-8.
  6. Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1990). Alterations in excretion pattern of ammonia and urea in a freshwater air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) during hyper-ammonia stress. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 28: 579-599.
  7. Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1991). Regulation of ureogenesis during hyper-ammonia stress in freshwater air-breathing teleosts. Journal of Scientific Research, 41A: 219-229. 
  8. Das J. R., Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1991). Tissue distribution and   sub-cellular localization of glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme in a freshwater air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 19: 207-212.
  9. Dkhar J., Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1991). Ureogenesis in a freshwater air-breathing teleost: An unusual sub-cellular distribution of ornithine-urea cycle enzymes in the freshwater air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis. Biochemistry International, 25: 1061-1069.
  10. Hallbrucker C., Saha N., Lang F., Gerok W. and Häussinger D. (1992). Alterations of cell volume: A major determinant of bile acid excretion. Journal of Hepatology, 16: 16 Suppl. 1, S7.
  11. Saha N., Stoll B., Lang F. and Häussinger D. (1992). Effect of anisotonic cell-volume modulation on glutathione-S-conjugate release, t-butyl-hydroperoxide metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt in perfused rat liver.  European Journal of Biochemistry, 209: 437-444.
  12. Häussinger D., Hallbrucker C., Saha N., Lang F. and Gerok W. (1992). Cell volume and bile acid excretion.  Biochemical Journal, 288: 681-689.
  13. Häussinger D., Saha N., Hallbrucker C., Lang F. and Gerok W. (1993). Involvement of microtubules in the swelling-induced stimulation of transcellular taurocholate transport in perfused rat liver.  Biochemical Journal, 291:355-360.
  14. Saha N., Schrieber R., vom Dahl S., Lang F., Gerok W. and Häussinger D. (1993). Endogenous hydroperoxide formation, cell volume and cellular K+ balance in perfused rat liver. Biochemical Journal, 296: 701-707.
  15. Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (1994). Induction of ornithine-urea cycle in a freshwater teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis, exposed to high concentrations of ammonium chloride. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 108B: 315-325.
  16. Saha N., Dkhar J. and Ratha B. K. (1995). Induction of ureogenesis in perfused liver of a freshwater teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis, infused with different concentrations of ammonium chloride. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 112B: 733-741.  
  17. Ratha B. K., Saha N., Rana R. K. and Choudhury B. (1995). Evolutionary significance of metabolic detoxification of ammonia to urea in an ammoniotelic freshwater teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis during temporary water deprivation. Evolucio’n Biolo’gica, 8 & 9: 107-117.
  18. Saha N., Dkhar J., Anderson P. M. and Ratha B. K (1997). Carbamyl phosphate synthetases in an air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 116B: 57-63.
  19. Goswami C. and Saha N. (1998). Glucose, pyruvate and lactate efflux by the perfused liver of an air-breathing teleost, Clarias batrachus during aniso-osmotic exposure. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 119A: 999-1007.
  20. Saha N. and Ratha B. K.  (1998). Ureogenesis in Indian air-breathing teleosts: Adaptation to environmental constraints. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 120A: 195-208.
  21. Tandon V., Paul P. and Saha N. (1998). Anthelmintic efficacy of Flemingia vestita (Leguminoceae): Genistein-induced alterations in the free amino acid pool of the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 22:110-115.
  22. Saha N., Das L. and Dutta S. (1999). Types of carbamyl phosphate synthetases and subcellular localization of urea cycle and related enzymes in air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 283: 121-130.
  23. Häussinger D., Kubitz R., Schlies F., Wettstein M.,Warskulat U., Kurz A.-K, Saha N. and vom Dahl S. (1999). Regulation of canalicular conjugate export pump by osmolarity, endotoxin and glucocorticoids in rat liver. In: Bile Acids and Cholestasis. Edited by G. Paumgartner, A. Stiehl, W. Gerok and D. Keppler. Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherlands, pp. 137-141.
  24. Saha N. and Das L. (1999). Stimulation of ureogenesis in perfused liver of an Indian air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus, infused with different concentrations of ammonium chloride.  Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 21:303-311.
  25. Saha N., Dutta S. and Häussinger D. (2000). Changes in free amino acid synthesis in the perfused liver of an air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus infused with ammonium chloride: A strategy to adapt under hyper ammonia stress. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 286: 13-23.
  26. Dombrowski F., Kubitz R., Wettstein M., Saha N. and Häussinger D. (2000). Electron microscopic demonstration of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) retrieval from the canalicular membrane in response to hyperosmolarity and lipopolysaccharide.  Biochemical Journal, 348:183-188.
  27. Saha N. and Dkhar J. (2000). Annual variation of ureogenesis in a freshwater air-breathing teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).  Tropical Zoology, 2&3: 87-95.
  28. Saha N., Das L., Dutta S. and Goswami U. C.  (2001). Role of ureogenesis        in the mud-dwelled Singhi catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: under condition of water shortage. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiolog,: 128A: 137-146.
  29. Tandon V., Kar P. K. and Saha N. (2001). NO nerves in trematodes, too! NADPH-diaphorase activity in adult Fasciolopsis buski. Parasitology International, 50: 157-163.
  30. Varman A. R., Mayer-Rochow V. B., Deb M. K., Dey S., Kharbuli B., Saha N. and Sentimenla (2001) Role of haem pigments in the physiology of colour vision of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. Tropical Zoology, 2&3: 97-101
  31. Saha N., Kharbuli Z.Y., Bhattacharjee A., Goswami, C and Häussinger D. (2002). Effect of alkalinity (pH 10) on ureogenesis in an air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 132A: 353-364.
  32. Kar P. K., Tandon V. and Saha N. (2002). Anthelmintic efficacy of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae): genistein induced effect on the activity of nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide in the trematode parasite, Fasciolopsis buski. Parasitology International, 51: 249-257.
  33. Saha N., Dutta S. and Bhattacharjee A. (2002). Role of amino acid metabolism in an air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus in response to exposure to a high concentration of exogenous ammonia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 133B: 235-250.
  34. Tandon V., Das B. and Saha N. (2003). Anthelmintic efficacy of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae): Effect of genistein on glycogen metabolism in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. Parasitology International, 52: 179-183.
  35. Saha N., Datta S., Biswas K. and Kharbuli Z Y. (2003). Role of ureogenesis in tackling problems of ammonia toxicity during exposure to higher ambient ammonia in the air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus. Journal of Biosciences, 28: 733-742.
  36. Häussinger D., Graf D., Reinehr R., Kutz A. K., Saha N., Wettstein M., Schliess F., vom Dahl, S. and Kubitz R. (2003). Short term regulation of bile acid secretion. In: Bile Acids: From Genomics to Disease and Therapy. Edited by G. Paumgartner. Springer-Verlag, Germany, pp. 133-138
  37. Häussinger D., Görg B., Bode J. G., Saha N., Wettstein M., Reiner R., Warskulat U., vom Dahl S. and Schliess F. (2003). Novel aspects of nitrogen metabolism in liver disease. In: Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism in Liver Failure. Edited by E. A. Jones, A. J. Meijer, R. A. F. Chamulan, Springer-Verlag, The Netherland, pp. 3-8
  38. Kar P K., Tandon V. and Saha N. (2004). Anthelmintic efficacy of genistein, the active principle of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae): alterations in the free amino acid pool and ammonia levels in the fluke, Fasciolopsis buski. Parasitology International, 53: 287-291. 
  39. Das B., Tandon V. and Saha N. (2004). Anthelmintic efficacy of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae): alternations in glucose metabolism of the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. Parasitology International, 53: 345-350.
  40. Das B., Tandon V. and Saha N. (2004). Anthelmintic efficacy of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae): alteration in the activities of some enzymes of glycolysis in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. Parasitology Research, 93: 253-261.
  41. Das B., Tandon V. and Saha N. (2004). Effects of phytochemicals of Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae) on glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and gluconeogenic enzymes in a cestode (Raillietina echinobothrida). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 139C: 141-146.
  42. Kubitz R., Saha N., Kühlkamp T., Dutta S., vom Dahl S., Wettstein M. and Häussinger D. (2004). Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C-isoforms mediate cholestasis in rat liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry: 279: 10323-10330.
  43. Donner M. G., Warskulat U., Saha N. and Häussinger D. (2004). Enhanced expression of basolateral multidrug resistance protein isoforms Mrp3 and Mrp5 in rat liver by LPS. Biological Chemistry, 385: 331-339.
  44. Saha N. and Goswami C. (2004). Effects of anisotonicity on pentose-phosphate pathway, oxidized glutathione release and t-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in the perfused liver of air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus. Journal of Biosciences, 29: 179-187.
  45. Goswami C., Datta S., Biswas K. and Saha N. (2004). Changes of cell volume effect gluconeogenesis in the perfused liver of catfish, Clarias batrachus. Journal of Biosciences, 29: 337-347.
  46. Kharbuli Z. Y., Datta S., Biswas K., Sarma D. and Saha N. (2006). Expression of ornithine-urea cycle enzymes in early life stages of the air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus and induction of ureogenesis under hyper-ammonia stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 143B: 44-53.
  47. Das B., Tandon V. and Saha N. (2006). Effect of isoflavone from Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae) on the Ca2+ homeostasis in Raillietina echinobothrida, the cestode of domestic fowl. Parasitology International, 55: 17-21. 
  48. Goswami C. and Saha N. (2006). Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: Roles of inorganic ions and taurine. Journal of Biosciences, 31: 589-598.
  49. Saha N. and Datta S. (2007). Possible biochemical strategies to ameliorate the ammonia toxicity by Indian air-breathing catfishes under environmental constraints. In: Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards on Fish and Fisheries. Edited by U.C. Goswami, Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 373-388.
  50. Saha N., Datta S., Kharbuli Z. Y., Biswas K. and Bhattacharjee A. (2007). Air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus upregulates the glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III to avoid ammonia toxicity during exposure to high external ammonia. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 147B: 520-530.
  51. Das B., Tandon V. and Saha N. (2007). Genistein from Flemingia vestita (Fabaceae) enhances NO and its mediator (cGMP) production in a cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida. Parasitology, 134: 1457-463.
  52. Saha N. and Ratha B. K. (2007). Review: Functional ureogenesis to ammonia metabolism in Indian freshwater air-breathing catfishes. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 33: 283-295.
  53. Kharbuli Z. Y., Biswas K. and Saha N. (2007). Mitochondrial citrulline synthesis in the liver of ureogenic air-breathing catfish (Clarias batrachus). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 45: 1073-1079.
  54. Biswas K., Khongsngi J. L., Häussinger D. and Saha N. (2009). Influence of cell volume changes on autophagic proteolysis in the perfused liver of air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). Journal of Experimental Zoology, 311A:115-124.
  55. Biswas K., Jyrwa L. M., Häussinger D. and Saha N. (2010). Influence of cell volume changes on protein synthesis in isolated hepatocytes of air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 36:17-27.
  56. Saha N., Jyrwa L. M., Das M. and Biswas K. (2011). Influence of environmental water salinity on gluconeogenesis in the air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 37: 681-692.
  57. Choudhury M. G. and Saha N. (2012). Influence of environmental ammonia on the production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the freshwater air-breathing catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). Aquatic Toxicology, 116-117: 43-53.
  58. Goswami U.  C. Rahman S. and Saha N. (2012). Functional ureogenesis and adaptation to nitrogen metabolism in amphihaline shad hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha, Hamilton-Buchanan) while inhabiting in estuary and freshwater habitats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 50: 652-659.
  59. Saha N. (2012) Biochemical adaptation to nitrogen metabolism in Indian air-breathing catfish under environmental constraints. Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Publication (ICAR), pp. 109-122.
  60. Choudhury M. G. and Saha N. (2012). Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in the mud-dwelled air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis under condition of water shortage. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry: 27:219-227.
  61. Das M., Banerjee B., Choudhury M.G. and Saha N. (2013). Environmental hypertonicity causes induction of gluconeogenesis in the air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. Plos One, 8(12), e85535.
  62. Banerjee B., Bhuyan G. and Saha N. (2014). Influence of environmental hypertonicity on the induction of ureogenesis and amino acid metabolism in air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus, Bloch). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 52: 728-738.
  63. Choudhury M. G. and Saha N. (2015). Nitric oxide synthetic machineries and possible roles of nitric oxide in various physiological functions in fish. In: Advances in Fish Research, Vol. VI. Edited by U.C. Goswami, Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, pp. 29-67.
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